But development of second birth energy cannot leave store can
Revolution of the sources of energy appeared 3 times on the history: Coal of revolution of first time the sources of energy replaced firewood bavin. England seizes development opportunity at that time, become global overlord, but also caused a lot of problem, be like haze of London big mist, according to not complete count, structure of British the sources of energy is medium at that time 70% above are coal. The 2nd times oil gas of revolution of the sources of energy replaced coal, the United States borrows situation become new world overlord. Revolution of the 3rd the sources of energy, it is but second birth the sources of energy, gain ground but the key that second birth the sources of energy is transition of the sources of energy of global implementation low carbon. Predict after 2030, among structure of whole the sources of energy, but second birth the sources of energy will occupy dominant. Our country is in ” 935 ” the revolution of the sources of energy that puts forward in the program and strategic principle of structural adjustment of the sources of energy are, to 2020, our country wind energy generates electricity installed capacity achieves 250 million kilowatt, guang Fufa report amounts to 150 million kilowatt, smooth heat generates electricity amount to 5 million kilowatt. But second birth the sources of energy is turning into by auxiliary the sources of energy gradually dominant the sources of energy.
Electrified wire netting is in 100 old histories, not store also can move very well, why to need now store can? The character of not stable, discontinuous sex that wind report, solar energy generates electricity causes impact to electrified wire netting, configuration store can, go up at all solved this one problem, realize safe, steady power supply. In recent years, abandon wind, abandon house of the smooth, rate that abandon water not to fall high, only last year annual, our country abandons wind, abandon the smooth, gross that abandon water to be as high as 110 billion kilowatt hour, exceed electricenergy production of annual of 3 gorge power station. Store can importance is highlighted — can generate electricity evenly and use phone, ensure electrified wire netting is stable, because this is large-scale store can the technology is implementation but the core technology that second birth the sources of energy popularizes application.
In recent years, as but development of second birth energy uses dimensions to expand ceaselessly, store can technical research and application are wide with each passing day. Meanwhile, the country begins to take seriously store can, good policy publishs a series of benefit ceaselessly, especially 5 ministries and commissions release the near future jointly ” about promoting store can technology and the directive opinion that the industry grows ” . As home first store can industrial policy document, ” directive opinion ” made clear store can the development target that the industry did not come to 10 years, the mark is worn store can stand really in position of the main body in electrified wire netting. At the same time ” directive opinion ” encourage a variety of technology courses and applied setting collateral development, and put forward by dominant of governmental guiding, market, emphasize establishing compensation mechanism, and rather than is pure offer subsidy, predicting future and electrochemistry store can relevant demonstrative project will be accelerated advance, a variety of store can commercial pattern develops hopeful flourishingly.
Different store can the technology has actor drawback each
Store can the technology can distinguish by scope magnitude, the article is main focusing is large-scale store can technology, instant a long, power is great, apply to electrified wire netting store can technology. Large-scale store can the technology needs to satisfy 3 requirements: It is security, the 2 sexual price that are lifecycle are compared tall namely economy, the 3 environmental negative charge that are lifecycle are small namely the environment is friendly. Right large-scale store can the technology, because systematic power and size are large, the harm that produces safe accident to cause and loss are big, because this is large-scale store can first requirement of the technology is on the safe side, solving sex of on the safe side is his Chongzhongzhi is heavy. In addition, no matter much more large-scale store can, the litter after discarding as useless handles cost to must calculate, the influence to the environment must consider to go in.
Pump water store can, compress air store can, lithium ion batteries, sodium sulfur batteries, lead is acerbity / plumbic charcoal batteries, current batteries is current a few main kinds store can technology, each have actor drawback, want to look for exact location when applying actually, make differ store can the technology acts crucial role in different domain and setting.
Pump water store can technology, the advantage is technical maturity, worldwide already built 127000MW, Chu Nengrong the amount is large, occupy store 99% of can total installed capacity, defect is the restriction that accepts the condition such as environment of landform, zoology. Be in Euramerican, pump water store can installed capacity is occupied commonly generate electricity the 5%-15% of installed capacity, and our country is restricted as a result of the resource such as hydrodlectric resources, geographical environment, pump water store can installed capacity is occupied only generate electricity the inadequacy of installed capacity 1.7% .
Compress air store can technology, the advantage is Chu Nengrong the amount is large, defect is optional location geology conditional limitation is big, need and light form a complete set of gas fuel power station. Compress air store can the technology is more mature, going up early the Germany of 80 time and the United States of 90 time have the century had built compress air store can power station, but on eye preexistence bound only 2 hundred made of baked clay class compresses air traditionally store can power station.
Lithium ion batteries store can technology, lithium ion batteries is produced now very can big, the price falls ceaselessly, but should use large-scale store can go up, want to take security problem and capacity attenuation problem seriously. Lithium ion batteries store can the system is done more greatly, its energy attenuation is faster.
Sodium sulfur batteries store can technology, the advantage is energy density the open circuit voltage of single cell is taller, tall, it is high temperature accumulator (350 ℃ run) , defect is liquid state sulfur and metallic natrium diaphragmatic to alumina have strong caustic, make detonate flee in terrorfry in deep fat or oil easily, batteries of dangerous sex big; is anticorrosive, adiabatic defend with safety requirement tall; makes cost tall; start time to grow (tens of hours are consummate 100 hours of) . Current, sodium sulfur battery can make inside global limits have Japanese NGK company only, the metallic natrium in sodium sulfur batteries catchs fire easily, have great and safe hidden trouble. Japan caught fire with batteries of sulfur of two of September 2011 large natrium in Feburary 2010 incident causes major blow to company of cell of Japanese natrium sulfur, bring about a lot of order to return money.
Plumbic acid, (plumbic carbon) batteries store can technology, the advantage is maturity of technology of plumbic acerbity batteries, price batteries of carbon of lead of relatively reliable; can improve cheap, safety performance substantially battery life, defect is short, environment pollutes cycling life. Through studying to plumbic carbon batteries in last few years, if plumbic carbon batteries is done well,the result makes clear, below similar requirement, the life of plumbic carbon batteries wants more acerbity than lead batteries to increase 5 times, but still put in problem of a few security.
Current batteries is prospective development trend
Navigant 2015 of foundation advisory company year right store can of the technology relevant forecast, think batteries of lithium ion, current, plumbic carbon batteries will become future store can development trend of the technology.
Batteries of complete vanadium current store can working principle of the technology is to use condition of vanadium ion price change, implementation electric energy stores and release. The advantage of batteries of complete vanadium current is, security is good, suit quite large-scale store can, especially of million made of baked clay above store can grow quite with time (4 hours above) store can; is at present in batteries life is the longest, be more than 13000 for many times; fills discharge to answer speed to compare fast; electrolyte to be able to be used circularly. Defect is more inferior than energy, do not suit electric car, suit stationary electric power plant only.
China develops batteries of complete vanadium current to have congenital advantage. Will look with respect to vanadium resource, the resource reserves with current and known whole world has 63 million tons about, chinese vanadium reserves takes the world 38% . The vanadium resource reserves that the whole world suits to extract at present is 13 million tons, among them 95% in China, Russia and south Africa. In addition, heretofore is in domain of complete vanadium current, cable length of Chinese whole industry is the most entire, all material already all came true homebred change.
The batteries of complete vanadium current that is in industrialization demonstrative phase is becoming new energy resources to generate electricity with electrified wire netting important store can one of technologies. Last year, first when approval of bureau of national energy resources builds large chemistry store can national demonstrative project — Dalian current batteries store can move a peak to stand, those who use is the domestic own research and development, Quan Fan that has own intellectual property current batteries store can technology, the battery of complete vanadium current with global the largest scale will be made after building store can power station.